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Copyright: Classroom Copies


The following guidelines are excerpted from the Conference Report to the 1976 Copyright Act. They apply to classroom copying in a non-profit educational setting.

Guidelines Definitions

Guidelines for Single Copies

A single copy may be made of any of the following by or for a single teacher at his or her individual request for his or her scholarly research or use in teaching or preparation to teach a class:

  • A single chapter from a book;
  • A single article from a periodical or newspaper;
  • A short story, short essay or short poem, whether or not from a collective work;
  • A chart, graph, diagram, drawing, cartoon or picture from a book, periodical or newspaper.

Guidelines for Multiple Copies

Multiple copies (not to exceed in any event more than one copy per pupil in a course) may be made by or for the teacher giving the course for classroom use or discussion, provided that:

  • The copying meets the tests of brevity and spontaneity
  • Meets the cumulative effect test
  • Each copy includes a notice of copyright and the appropriate citations and attributions